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Week 2

High-Energy Feedstuffs

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Introduction to Cereal Grains

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Time: 5.35

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  • Primary source of energy in livestock rations
  • Seeds of plants of grass family
  • Major cereal grains: corn, sorghum or milo, barley, oats, wheat, triticale, and rye
    • Table 4.1 Major cereal grains produced in U.S.
    Table 4.1 - U.S. Cereal Grain Production*
    Grain
    Crop Year - 2001
    Corn
    241,485
    Sorghum
    13,070
    Barley
    5,434
    Oats
    1,696
    In 1,000 metric tons - One metric ton equals 2,204.6 pounds
    *Estimated

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Traded based on weight
    • Bushel weight
      • Density measure
      • Positive association with value
      • Increase in density, increase in energy value
    • Ton
  • Valued based on grades
  • Nutritional value
    • Relatively similar
    • Table 5.4 on page 61 of text Average nutrient composition of major cereal grains
    • Relatively constant
    • Figure 4.1 General structure of grain and primary nutrients associated with each component
    • High digestibility
    • Figure 4.1 - General structure of grain and primary nutrients associated with each component
      • Vary by species and quality
    • High in nonstructural carbohydrates
      • Primary carbohydrate starch
        • Vary by type of molecule, chain length, and extent of branching
    • Low in nonstructural carbohydrates
      • Cellulose present in cell wall and hulls
    • Lignin present in hull
    • Crude protein content 8 14%
      • Generally, wheat is greater
    • Protein quality
      • Proteins, solubility, and amino acid content varies
      • General low in lysine, tryptophan, threonine, and methionine
    • Lipid content
      • Less than 1% to greater than 6%
      • Predominant fatty acids palmitic, linoleic, and oleic
    • Mineral content
      • Low in Ca
      • High in P
        • Bound P, low availability for monogastrics
      • Low in microminerals
    • Vitamin content
      • Fair source of vitamin E
      • Low in vitamins A and D
        • Exception: corn high in A precursor
      • Low in most of B complex vitamins
    • Relative nutritional value between cereal grains
      • Energy value
        • Table 5.13 in text Relative ME value of each of grains for ruminants, poultry, and swine
        • Corn is standard; set at 100
          • Majority of others lower than corn
      • Crude protein
        • Table 5.13 in text Relative crude protein value of each of grains
        • Corn is standard; set at 100
          • Others higher than corn

 

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