jump over navigation bar
OSU Extended CampusOregon State University
official course number and title
Welcome Getting Started Resources Site Map
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Week 5

Mineral and Vitamin Supplements

link to previous page in the series link to next page in the series

Instructions for listening to audio clips

Download the QuickTime Player to listen to the audio files.
Read the QuickTime Instructions for installation help.
Download the RealPlayer to listen to the audio files
Instructions are on the RealPlayer download page

Introduction to Mineral Supplements

Text Transcript

Follow along with the audio...

  • Inorganic compounds
  • Chemically, elements
  • Classified based on concentration in body and dietary requirement
    • Macrominerals
      • Greater than 100 ppm
      • In ration, expressed as percent of dry-matter
      • In general, daily requirement on order of decigrams to one or more grams
      • Table 10.1 Macrominerals and abbreviations
      Table 10.1 - Macrominerals & Abbreviations
      Macromineral
      Abbreviation
      Calcium
      Ca
      Chlorine
      Cl
      Magnesium
      Mg
      Phosphorus
      P
      Potassium
      K
      Sodium
      Na
      Sulfur
      S
    • Microminerals
      • Trace minerals
      • Less than 100 ppm
      • In ration, expressed as milligrams per kilogram
        • One ppm equal to one milligram per kilogram
      • In general, daily requirement on order of micrograms to milligrams
      • Table 10.2 Microminerals and abbreviations
      Table 10.2 - Microminerals & Abbreviations
      Micromineral
      Abbreviation
      Chromium
      Cr
      Cobalt
      Co
      Copper
      Cu
      Fluorine
      F
      Iron
      Fe
      Iodine
      I
      Manganese
      Mn
      Molybdenum
      Mo
      Nickel
      Ni
      Selenium
      Se
      Silicon
      Si
      Zinc
      Zn
  • Each mineral
    • Essential for maintenance and production functions
    • At least one specific, exclusive function
  • Table 10.3 Primary functions of each of the macrominerals and microminerals
  • Table 10.3 - Function(s) of Macrominerals and Microminerals
    Mineral
    Primary Function(s)
    Calcium
    -Build and maintain bones and teeth
    -Blood coagulation
    -Muscle contraction and relaxation
    -Nerve transmission
    -Enzyme activation
    -Secretion of hormones and hormone-releasing
    factors
    -Milk production and egg shell formation
    Chlorine
    -Regulation of osmotic pressure, water balance, and acid-base balance
    -Production of HCl in gastric stomach
    Magnesium
    -Component of bones and teeth
    -Cellular metabolism of ATP and ADP
    -Protein digestion
    -Relaxes nerve impulses
    -Rumen buffer
    Phosphorus

    -Formation and maintenance of bones and teeth
    -Milk secretion
    -Building muscle tissue
    -Component of nucleic acids
    -Maintenance of osmotic and acid-base balance
    -Metabolic functions associated with energy, phospholipids, amino acids, and enzyme systems

    Potassium
    -Maintenance of acid-base balance
    -Transfer of nutrients between cells
    -Relaxes heart muscle
    -Secretion of insulin
    -Enzyme reactions
    -Carbohydrate metabolism
    -Protein synthesis
    Sodium
    -Maintenance of osmotic pressure and acid-base balance
    -Component of secretions of the pancreas, liver, skin, and other tissues
    -Muscle contraction
    -Nerve functions
    -Carbohydrate metabolism
    Sulfur
    -Component of sulfur-containing amino acid, biotin, thiamin, insulin, coenzyme A, certain complex carbohydrates and glutathione
    -Detoxification
    -Component of hair, wool, and feathers
    Chromium
    -Component of glucose tolerance factor
    -Activator of enzymes in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism
    -Stabilize nucleic acids
    -Synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol
    Cobalt
    -Component of vitamin B-12
    Copper
    -Metabolism of iron
    -Formation of hemoglobin
    -Several enzyme system
    -Development and maintenance of vascular and
    skeletal structures
    -Central nervous system
    -Pigmentation of hair and wool
    -Component of proteins
    -Reproduction
    Fluorine
    -Development of bones and teeth
    Iron
    -Component of hemoglobin and myoglobin
    -Component of various enzymes
    -Activator of enzymes
    Iodine
    -Production of iodine-containing hormones, thyroxin and triiodothyronine involved in growth, nervous and muscle tissues, circulatory system, and metabolism of all nutrients
    Manganese
    -Formation of bone
    -Growth of connective tissues
    -Blood clotting
    -Insulin
    -Cholesterol synthesis
    -Activator of enzymes in carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and nucleic acid metabolism
    Molybdenum
    -Component of enzyme systems in metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, lipid, sulfur-containing amino acids, nucleic acids, and iron metabolism -Enzyme component in production of uric acid
    -Growth-promoting effect
    -Component of teeth
    Nickel
    -Enzyme function in protein and lipid metabolism
    Selenium
    -Component of enzyme which is an antioxidant
    -Protection from specific toxic compounds
    Silicon
    -Growth and skeletal development
    Zinc
    -Skin, bones, hair, and feathers
    -Component of enzyme systems involved in digestion and respiration
    -Transfer of carbon dioxide in red blood cells
    -Metabolism of proteins and nucleic acids
    -Reproduction
    -Immune function
    -Function of insulin
  • Quantitative and qualitative assessments
    • Quantitative
      • Ash procedure of proximate analysis
        • Estimate of total mineral content
      • Specialized analysis via spectrophotometer
        • Quantity of individual mineral components
    • Qualitative
      • Bioavailability
        • Ability of mineral source to supply digestible and absorbable form of mineral
        • Table 10.4 Various mineral sources with intermediate and high relative bioavailability
      • Table 10.4 - Various Mineral Sources with Intermediate and High Bioavailability
        Mineral
        Source
        Bioavailability
        Calcium
        Steamed bone meal
        Monocalcium phosphate
        Dicalcium phosphate
        Defluorinated phosphate
        Calcium carbonate
        Ground limestone
        Dolomite limestone
        High
        High
        High
        Intermediate
        Intermediate
        Intermediate
        Intermediate
        Phosphorus
        Calcium phosphate
        Phosphoric acid
        Sodium phosphate
        Steamed bone meal
        Defluorinated phosphate
        Dicalcium phosphate
        High
        High
        High
        High
        Intermediate
        Intermediate
        Magnesium
        Magnesium carbonate
        Magnesium chloride
        Magnesium oxide
        Potassium and magnesium sulfate
        High
        High
        High
        High
        Potassium
        Potassium chloride
        Potassium sulfate
        Potassium and magnesium sulfate
        High
        High
        High
        Sulfur
        Potassium sulfate
        Potassium and magnesium sulfate
        Sodium sulfate
        High
        High
        Intermediate
        Cobalt
        Cobalt carbonate
        Copper sulfate
        High
        High
        Copper
        Copper sulfate
        Copper chloride
        Copper carbonate
        Copper nitrate
        High
        High
        Intermediate
        Intermediate
        Iodine
        Potassium iodide, stabilized
        High
        Iron
        Ferrous sulfate
        High
        Manganese
        Manganese sulfate
        Manganese carbonate
        High
        High
        Selenium
        Sodium selenate
        Sodium selenite
        High
        High
        Zinc
        Zinc carbonate
        Zinc sulfate
        Zinc chloride
        High
        High
        Intermediate
      • Estimate
    • Quantity and quality varies by mineral source and within mineral source
  • Book values
    • May not consistently represent actual contents of feedstuff
    • Recommended, establish schedule to analyze mineral content of feedstuffs
    • In general, mineral content of feeds such as grains consistent
      • Ash provides information regarding significant deviations
      • For significant deviations, perform analysis of individual minerals
    • Forages and by-products may be variable
      • Perform individual mineral analyses on more frequent schedule
  • Table 8-1 on page 168-169 of text Sources of mineral supplements utilized in feed supplements, complete feeds, or in mineralized salt
    • Sources with asterisk most commonly utilized in commercial feeds
  • Classifications
    • Inorganic or organic
      • Inorganic
        • Do not contain carbon
      • Organic
        • Do contain carbon
    • Natural or synthetic
      • Natural
        • Minerals processed to concentrate mineral and minimize contaminants
        • Organic or inorganic
      • Synthetic
        • Produced by chemical synthesis
        • Organic or inorganic
        • Chelated minerals
          • Synthetic, organic
          • Chemically, mineral bound to organic compound
          • Expensive per unit of mineral
          • Data do not conclusively support based on premise of improved utilization
    • An additional note, in general, mineral sources in feeds are in organic form
  • Feeding
    • Added to ration or offered ad-libitum
    • Micronutrients require carrier
    • Consumption of ad-libitum varies by animal
      • Recommended to add supplements to complete feeds to promote adequate consumption by each animal
      • If feeding situation requires ad-libitum feeding, add salt to supplement to control consumption
  • Supplementation
    • In general, minerals in feedstuffs and water do not fulfill dietary requirements for each mineral
      • Additional supplementation is required
    • Selection
      • Cost per unit of mineral available
      • Absence of antinutritional factors
      • Physical form
    • Specific mineral and quantity required
      • Animal species and physiological state
      • Available mineral in feedstuffs
      • Available mineral in water source
    • Complex
      • Number of minerals
      • Interrelationships between minerals
        • Figure 8-1 on page 167 of text - Identified interactions between various minerals
      • Varied requirements for each mineral
      • Varied ranges of subclinical and clinical toxicities for each mineral
  • Management
    • Subclinical deficiencies and toxicities have potential to impact health and productivity
      • Essential to match mineral requirement to mineral available
    • Realize commercial mineral sources may not effectively meet animal requirements
      • Table 8-3 on page 175 of text Mineral supplements, even specialized formulations, may be deficient in or provide excess
    • In comparison to impact on profitability, cost of mineral supplementation minimal

 

link to previous page in the series link to next page in the series

 

Welcome Getting Started Resources SiteMap
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9