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Week 2

High-Energy Feedstuffs

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Corn

Text Transcript

Time: 7.04

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  • Most important feed grain
    • U.S. estimated production - 9,506 million bushels
  • Regions of production Midwest and Great Plains
  • Figure 4.2 Field of corn
  • Figure 4.2 - Field of corn

  • Most productive of grains
    • Largest yield
      • Estimated average yield 138.2 bu/acre
      • Greatest amount of digestible energy per unit of land
    • Produces grain and stover
      • Stover all nongrain portions of plant
  • Nutritional value of corn
    • Table 4.2 Average nutrient composition of corn
      • Energy source
        • High in starch
        • High in oil
        • Low in fiber
      • Protein source
      • Table 4.2 - Average Nutrient Composition of Corn
        Nutrient
        Average Composition, %
        Crude protein
        10.4
        Ether extract
        4.6
        Crude fiber
        2.5
        Ash
        1.4
        NFE
        81.3
        Starch
        72.2
        • Low CP content
        • Quality
          • Poor quality
          • Low solubility
          • Deficient in lysine, methionine, and tryptophan
      • Lipid source
        • High lipid content
          • Increase energy and palatability
          • Provide essential fatty acids
      • Minerals
        • Very deficient in Ca
        • Moderate in P
          • Bound as phytate complex
          • Requires microbial phytase
      • Vitamins
        • Yellow grain
          • Vitamin A precursors
        • Fair source of E
        • Poor source of D and B-complex
  • Classified based on kernel
    • Kernel germ and endosperm
    • Dent - major commercial variety
  • Yellow or white
    • U.S., yellow preferred
      • Presence of carotenoids
        • Carotenoids - group characterized by yellow to red pigments
  • Figure 4.3 Yellow dent corn grain on the cob
  • Figure 4.3 - Yellow dent corn grain on the cob

  • Figure 4.4 Yellow dent corn grain
  • Figure 4.4 - Yellow dent corn grain

  • Many hybrids
    • Hybrids offspring of genetically dissimilar parents
    • Facilitate growth in range of climatic conditions
  • Genetic engineered
    • Bt corn
      • Control pest
    • Round-Up Ready Corn
      • Resist herbicide
  • Nutritional value-added
    • High oil
    • Low phytate
    • High lysine
  • C3 and C4
    • Based on intermediates of photosynthesis
      • Three- versus four-carbon compound
    • Characteristics of C4 compared to C3
      • Heat tolerance
      • Drought tolerance
      • Efficiency of nutrient use
      • Carbohydrate production
  • Summer annual
    • Plant in spring or summer
    • Harvest in summer or fall
      • Figure 4.5 Mechanical harvester harvesting grain
      • Figure 4.5 - Mechanical harvester harvesting grain

      • Figure 4.6 - Mechanical harvester transferring grain
      • Figure 4.6 - Mechanical harvester transferring grain

  • Processing prior to feeding
    • Increases nutritional value
    • Processing
      • Breaks kernel shell
        • Increasing availability
      • Break apart or gelatinizes starch granules
        • Increasing digestibility
  • No significant intrinsic toxins
  • Susceptible to deleterious factors molds, smuts, blights
    • Fungi
      • Characterized by mold
      • Produce toxins called mycotoxins
      • Examples of grain mycotoxins include aflatoxin, zearalenone, vomitoxin, and fumonisin
      • Figure 4.7 Aspergillus flavis on corn
      • Figure 4.7 - Aspergillus flavis on corn

  • Feeding livestock
    • General characteristics
      • Digestible
      • Palatable
      • Cost-effective energy source
      • Rarely, nutritional problems
    • Swine and poultry
      • Corn-soybean meal based are industry standard
      • Adequate energy and protein
    • Finishing beef cattle
      • Increased weight gain, increased feed efficiency, and improved meat quality
    • Lactating dairy cattle
      • Support milk production
    • Sheep
      • Late gestation ewes and fattening lambs
    • Generally, not fed to horses

 

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